1-What are the steps to assess the security posture of an enterprise?

2-What does vulnerability assessment mean?

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3-Why us vulnerability assessment important?

4-What is the difference between vulnerability scanning and penetration testing?

5-What are the techniques for practicing data privacy and security.


1-Asset Identification

The first step in a vulnerability assessment is to determine the assets that need to be protected. An asset is defined as any item that has a positive economic value, and asset identification is the process of inventorying these items. An organization has many different types of assets, including people (employees, customers, business partners, contractors, and vendors) and physical assets (buildings, automobiles, and plant equipment). In addition, the elements of IT are also key assets. This includes data (all information used and transmitted by the organization, such as employee databases and inventory records), hardware (computers, servers, networking equipment, and telecommunications connections), and software (application programs, operating systems, and security software


2-Threat Evaluation

After assets have been inventoried, the next step is to determine the potential threats against the assets that come from threat actors. Threats are not limited to attackers, but also include natural disasters, such as fire or severe weather. Common threat agents are listed in next Table.


3-Vulnerability Appraisal

After the assets have been inventoried and the threats have been determined, the next natural question is, “What are our current weaknesses that might expose the assets to these threats?” Known as vulnerability appraisal, this process in effect takes a snapshot of the current security of the organization.


4-Risk Assessment

The next step is to perform a risk assessment. A risk assessment involves determining the damage that would result from an attack and the likelihood that the vulnerability is a risk to the organization.

Determining the damage from an attack first requires a realistic look at several different types of attacks that might occur. Based upon the vulnerabilities recognized in the vulnerability appraisal, a risk assessment of the impact can then be undertaken. Not all vulnerabilities pose the same risk. One way to determine the severity of a risk.


5-Risk Mitigation

Once the risks are determined and ranked, the final step is to determine what to do about the risks, or risk mitigation. Realistically, risk can never be entirely eliminated; it would cost too much or take too long. Some risks must simply be accepted by default (war is an example of such a risk that cannot be protected against, and thus most assets cannot be insured against war), that is, some degree of risk must always be assumed. An organization should not ask, “How can we eliminate all risk?” but rather, “How much acceptable risk can we tolerate?” Once the “toleration” level is known, steps can be taken to mitigate the risk.

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