Le Chatelier’s Principle

Le Chatelier’s Principle

A system at ______________ has forward and reverse reactions taking place at ______________ rates and has reaction quotient, Q, ______________ to the equilibrium constant, K. If an equilibrium system experiences a change in conditions that affects the forward and reverse reaction rates differently, then the ______________ are no longer equal, Q will no longer equal ____, and the system is not at ______________. The system will subsequently experience a net reaction in the direction of greater rate (a shift) that will re-establish the equilibrium. Comparing the value of Q to K allows prediction of the ______________ the reaction will shift in order to return to equilibrium. These observations are summarized in Le Châtelier’s principle: if an equilibrium system is stressed, the system will shift in response to the stress to relieve the stress and reestablish equilibrium.

 

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Either removing a product or adding more of a reactant result in a Q value ______________ K. The equilibrium will shift ______________ until concentrations are achieved that have Q equal to K again. ______________ a product or ______________ a reactant will result in a Q value greater than K and the reaction will shift ______________. In all of these cases, the ending concentrations of reactants and products will be different to the amounts present before the stress was applied, and the value of the equilibrium constant will be ______________.

 

KP is calculated using partial pressure, which is analogous to concentration. Changing the ______________ of the system or the total pressure will result in changes in concentration to both sides of the equation. This changes the position of equilibrium, but not the value of K, if ______________ are involved in the reaction, and then only when the chemical reaction produces a change in the total ______________ of gas in the system. Increasing the pressure or ______________ the volume result in a shift toward the side of the equation that has ______________ moles of gas. ______________ the pressure or increasing the volume results in a shift toward the side with the ______________ number of moles of gas. If the number of moles of gas is ______________ on both sides of the reaction, changing pressure or volume will not affect the reaction.

 

Changes to concentration or pressure affect the value of ______ but do not change the value of _____. The equilibrium constant for a reaction changes only if the temperature changes. When an equilibrium shifts in response to a temperature change it is re-established with a different relative composition that exhibits a new value for the equilibrium constant. This is explained by the dependence of the equilibrium constant on the rate constants of the forward and reverse reactions. Since the forward and reverse reactions typically experience different impacts from the change in temperature, the position of equilibrium will change. Considering the ______________ value can allow prediction of the effect caused by change in temperature. Raising the temperature of a system ______________ the energy of the system. The reaction will shift in the direct that uses up energy. For a reaction that is endothermic in the forward direction, increasing the temperature will ______________ the amount of products made. For an exothermic reaction, a temperature increase will result in a shift toward the ______________ so the extra energy can be pulled into bonds and the systemic stress removed. Cooling the system favors product formation in an ______________ reaction.

 

Addition of a ______________ does not affect the equilibrium position or constant for a reaction. Catalysts lower the ______________ of both the forward and reverse reactions, which causes the equilibrium to be established more ______________.

 

Practice Problems

 

 

Answer the questions about the following reaction that occurs at high temperature:

  1. C(s) + H2O(g) ⇌ CO(g) + H2(g) K = 2.6 at 1000 K ∆Hrxn = 125 kJ/mol
  2. How will the reaction shift if carbon is removed from the reaction?

 

  1. If the reaction is carried out in a sealed vessel, how will the reaction position shift if the volume of the vessel is reduced?

 

  1. If the reaction is carried out at 800 K instead, will K change? Explain.

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