The Inventory System

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Include pros and cons, alternate opinions, ideas, solutions, and/or additional applications.


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The inventory system that you can see in the Auto industry is JIT. JIT is “defined as a philosophy of operation that seeks to maximize efficiency and eliminate waste in any form” (Vonderembse & White, 2013, p. 340), this process is used to lower inventory but to maximize processing time. The JIT process helps a company to only allow companies to have only those parts and materials on hand to produce what they need and get rid of the extra inventory on hand. The company is processing in real-time and will only produce those items that they have planned for. This process is effective for certain types of businesses and you are repeating a process and not something that can cause a lot of changes. As stated, the Auto industry uses this process in the production of making their automobile, this process helps with repeating the same processes over and over will also help in quality in their products. “JIT has had a radical impact on manufacturing paradigms the world over and Toyota continues to lead the charge, practicing its TPS and achieving continued success and profitability in the auto industry. More and more manufacturers are implementing JIT and, if they are careful about how they are applying it and embedding organization-wide philosophies, are succeeding with it. However, today’s pace of globalization is putting increasing strain on JIT, and it is yet unclear how JIT will transform to meet the new world order. Undoubtedly, the world will continue to watch companies such as Toyota and Wal-Mart to get the answer to that question” (Gubata, 2017, para. 45). JIT can also be used in fast food by making the same product over and over like Pizza or another example would be a company like UPS that is delivering a product very quickly. However, the JIT strategy would be good for all the examples mentioned they would not be good for medical/hospital since it deals with people and the process of healing, and this is not a repeated process, and all is done a bit differently. Hospitals are not in the business to process orders repeatedly, they have to look at each of their patients on an individual basis based on what brought them to the hospital in the first place. When looking at the JIT process you can see that it is seeing the continuous improvement that wants to be precise and have a high-quality output.

Reference Vonderembse, M. A., White, G. P. (2013). Operations management[Electronic version].Retrieved from (Links to an external site)


The process of Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management was adopted by the US auto industry to eliminate the warehousing of parts as needed to assemble cars. According to Vonderembse (2013) JIT is defined as a philosophy of operation that seeks to maximize efficiency and eliminate waste in any form. This definition implies that JIT system is based upon keeping low inventories by producing the right amount of inventories at the right time. This is based on the fact that wastes result from any activity that adds cost without adding value to the product, such as transferring of inventories from one place to another or even the mere act of storing them. JIT is therefore most applicable to operations that do not change, i.e., those that are simply repeated over and over again. An example of this would be an automobile assembly line where every car undergoes the same production process as the one before it. An organization that JIT would certainly be most inappropriate is the hospital industry.

Even with all the success realized in the manufacturing sector, a JIT inventory system is nota simple method that the hospital industry can adopt. According to Anu Partanen (2017) both industries rely on having inventory for very different reasons. One is to make sales and the other is to assist in the care of patients and in a lot of cases, to save lives. In most cases, there always has to stock on hand which contradicts the conventional manufacturing ideal of producing as much inventories as possible in anticipation of demand. Hospitals cannot afford to have lean or empty shelves as they are not in the business of forecasting production or sales. There is no dollar value that can be accurately determined by number of beds in a hospital or volume of patient services to anticipate.  She further pointed out that “the manufacturing industries have had to address major problems with JIT operation in that it leaves the supplier and downstream consumers open to supply stocks shortages and large supply or demand changes if not properly foretasted”. Interruptions in the shipping process add additional problems when dealing with low inventories for which hospitals in rural areas cannot afford. JIT is a means to improving the supply performance of the system that produces a product for sale, not save lives as hospitals do not have predictable historical demands; they are based on the unknown and cannot afford stock-outs (Partanen, 2017). Contrary to JIT philosophy, keeping minimum supplies can have a high cost to hospitals as smaller shipments costs more and must come without interruptions. JIT inventory management therefore is not a true reality in healthcaretoday as is stockless inventory programs. Have a couple of natural disasters and JIT would prove a disaster too.


Partanen, A. (2017). The Fake Freedom of American Health Care. Retrieved from  Opinion | The Fake Freedom of American Health Care – The New York Times ( (Links to an external site.)  16 Novenmber 2021.

Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013).  Operations management  [Electronic version]. Retrieved from



Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Describe similar or different services from your classmates’ posts. Include alternate opinions, ideas, and/or additional aspects and considerations.


As stated by Vonderembse & White (2013) when a schedule is given, it is supposed to be created on the demand for the product or service in the marketplace. Scheduling requirements will fluctuate from product to product and service to service. Plus, there are styles of scheduling that the schedule maker can select from.

Certain businesses such as restaurants or even retail stores will want to utilize scheduling to match peak business trends. A restaurant that is popular for its dinner servings would not want to staff heavily in the morning and light in the evening, they would want to be strongly staffed during their busiest times of the evening. Other business types such as hospitals don’t necessarily have a “peak” time. Nobody knows when they will need to go to the hospital. Therefore hospitals must consistently be staffed fairly evenly throughout the day and night.

Scheduling within the manufacturing world must take into account a variety of factors such as processing time, demand, due dates, and more. Some manufacturers may implement a make-to-order system where they only produce a product once an order is placed by the customer. Other manufacturers use make-to-stock systems where future demand is determined through previous data collection and stock is produced to meet that expected demand.

Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013).  Operations management  [Electronic version]. Retrieved from



Hi Everyone,


The service industry has several differences from production industries when it comes to scheduling challenges and approaches. There is no such thing as stocking service but scheduling employees and staffing ratios that are appropriate to meet demands, especially fluctuating demands is extremely challenging. Certain tools are utilizing to attempt to equalize staffing and demand, such as reservations or providing incentives to use services during peak times (Vonderembse, 2013). Service industries often schedule for peak Demand. This is utilized in hospital settings, particularly Emergency Rooms when typically, influx of patients is higher. In addition, Hospitals use overlap in shifts. This allows for increased staffing when necessary and ability to decrease patient to staff ratios if demand is low. Restaurants may utilize a Chase demand type of scheduling, but this requires significant flexibility in staffing. In this type of schedule part time employment is utilizes in higher numbers and staffing is based on historical data of peak times as well as ability to flexibly add overtime to meet fluctuating demands. This as well as Scheduling appointments or reservations work well in many service industries to ensure appropriate staffing. Companies can then utilize promotions and specials to fill in gaps and fill empty seats and promote business. (Vonderembse, 2013).  Cross training is another method to meeting service industry scheduling demands.  This may not be ideal in the airline industry, but it does work well in other service industries. Our company is very proactive about cross training. This allows a shift in work force to meet the processing and customer service needs of various departments when one area is light on work, and another is over worked. This also helps keep payroll steady and avoids unnecessary overtime. Scheduling has its challenges in every industry.



Role of an Advocate

· Points you receive on discussions will reflect the quality of your initial post and responses.

· Ask at least one question in response to an original peer post that you would like the author to explore further.

· Support your initial and subsequent posts by citing at least two academic resources

Please respond to at least two of your classmates by Day 7 with your responses being approximately 75-100 words in length.


Week 6 Discussion

Part One: Role of Advocate

According to Katrina, H, et al., (2015), there are many people who are struggling with a mental health illnesses and unfortunately there are barriers to care and oftentimes care is outdated (Katrina, 2015). Due to this there are many people who are not receiving the care they need and this affects their daily life. Thus, the role of an advocate and stakeholders is to push for more quality care for individuals that need and deserve quality care as well as to put pressure on their government to hopefully ensure that people struggling with mental health illnesses can receive care and not struggle in their daily lives. Also, advocating for mental health can lead to better policies or even legislative action being taken to ensure that mental health services and quality care can be given to individuals with mental health illnesses. Advocating for mental health illnesses and for quality care for people with mental health illnesses can strengthen resources and mental health systems for individuals with mental health illnesses (Katrina, 2015). That is why advocating for mental health illnesses and quality care for mental health illnesses is an important role.

Part Two: Ethical Conflicts

McKeown, M., et al., (2014), states that when a mental health professional takes on the role of an advocate an ethical concern that could arise is when the advocate works with the care team and the care team finds the advocate unprofessional, non-communicative, or an irritant (McKeown, 2014). The working relationship between the advocate and care team could become compromised because the care team may believe the advocate is against them when the advocate is there for the patient just like the care team. Ethical conflicts then arrive because the care team may not work with the advocate causing the patients rights to be affected in the middle of this conflict (McKeown, 2014). This is why it is important that from day one everyone is of the understanding that the patient’s rights are important and must be met by the care team and advocate.


Katrina, H., Heather, P., Doris, C., Daniel, S., & Julian, E. (2015). Factors for success in mental health

advocacy. Global Health Action, 8(0), 1-9. (Links to an external site.)

McKeown, M., Ridley, J., Newbigging, K., Machin, K., Poursanidou, K., & Cruse, K. (2014). Conflict

of roles: A conflict of ideas? The unsettled relations between care team staff and independent

mental health advocates. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 23(5), 398-408.



Mental health advocacy represents people’s concerns regarding issues with mental health using various tactics to ensure rights are protected and voices are heard (Newbigging, et. al., 2015).  The role of an advocate for mental health issues spreads awareness of behavioral health issues that impact individuals affected by mental illness and addiction disorders and positively influences policy and decision makers to develop strategies to assist marginalized groups.  For example, the negative stigma that surrounds this vulnerable group and impacts the daily life of mental health clients is one of the many major issues that mental health advocates have battled against.  According to Albritton, et. al., (2021), “reducing stigma and fostering peer support remains critical for positive mental health interventions and programs” (pg. 1).  From the U.S. Capitol to state legislatures to state councils, mental health advocates have taken an active role to put mental health on the national agenda and have shaped how our country helps those individuals with mental illness.

Because advocates act through public display, mental health professionals must be aware of ethical concerns during advocacy.  Because mental health issues range outside traditional medical fields, they are more likely to be judged by a variety of ethical standards (Schlesinger, 1995).  Advocating along with other organizations without prior investigation may cause potential ethical issues if the other organizations have behaved in unethical manners contrary to the NASW Code of Ethics.  The professional’s reputation is on the line when advocating for causes, so this is an area that must be considered before participating.  Prioritizing their responsibilities to clients and organizations and determining whether the issue merits advocacy is a great way to avoid ethical problems.  Protecting client’s privacy and confidentiality is a major ethical concern for mental health advocates.  While in the role of an advocate, it is important to not compromise client’s confidentiality.  Mental health advocates unite together to influence health policy and regulations but can face major ethical issues while doing so.

Albritton, T., Ford, K. L., Elsbernd, K., Santodomingo, M., Juzang, I., Weddington, P., & Bull, S. (2021). Implementing a Peer Advocate Mental Health Digital Intervention Program for Ohio Youth: Descriptive Pilot Study. JMIR Mental Health8(4), e24605. (Links to an external site.)

Newbigging, K., Ridley, J., McKeown, M., Machin, K., & Poursanidou, K. (2015). “When you haven’t got much of a voice”: an evaluation of the quality of Independent Mental Health Advocate ( IMHA) services in England. Health & Social Care in the Community23(3), 313–324. (Links to an external site.)

Schlesinger, M. (1995). Perspectives: Ethical Issues in Policy Advocacy. Health Affairs14(3), 23–29.

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