Lab: attached files below
P/s: Need to attach pictures when doing experiment.
Lab 9: Faraday’s Law
Objectives In this lab you will use PhET’s simulation Faraday’s Law to study electromagnetic induction.
Theory Electric fields and magnetic fields are not independent physical properties. One of the phenomena
that highlights the relationship between the two types of field is the phenomenon of
electromagnetic induction in which a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. In this lab we
will study, qualitatively, electromagnetic induction by observing and describing the effect of the
induced electric field on electric charges (electrons) moving through metal wires forming an
In the context of this lab, Faraday’s law states that the voltage induced in a coil is proportional to
two factors: total area enclosed by the coil and the rate of change of the magnetic field.
The total area enclosed by a coil is the product of the number of loops and the area of one loop. In
this simulation, the area of individual loops cannot be changed and, therefore, the only way to
change the total area is by changing the number of loops. The simulation allows us to connect one
or two coils with different numbers of loops.
Similarly, the simulation doesn’t allow us to change the strength of the magnet. Instead, adjusting
the rate of change of the magnetic field inside the coils will be achieved by adjusting the speed at
which the magnet is moved relative to the coil (you will be responsible for moving the magnet into
the coil at various speeds).
Part 1: Dependence on the Speed of the Magnet 1. Check the “Field lines” box to display the magnetic field lines.
2. How many magnetic field lines emerge from the north pole? How many converge into the
3. Select the single coil option.
4. Drag the magnet so that its axis aligns with the axis of the coil and it is far enough from the
coil that no more than four magnetic field lines go through the coil.
5. With a very slow and steady motion, push the magnet into the coil, north-pole first, until it
exits through the other side completely clearing the coil so that no more than four magnetic
field lines are left inside the coil. Make sure the speed of the magnet is slow enough that the
needle of the voltmeter never passes beyond half the left and/or right half of the scale; this
might take repeated attempts. Observe the motion of the needle and the brightness of the
bulb very carefully.
a. Describe the motion of the needle of the voltmeter: In what direction does it move
first (- or +)? When does the needle change direction in relation to the position of
the magnet relative to the coil? When is the maximum deflection achieved by the
needle, on either side, in relation to the position of the magnet?
b. Describe the change in the brightness of the bulb: When is the brightness at a
maximum in relation to the position of the magnet relative to the coil? Can you see a
correlation with the motion of the needle?
6. Repeat step 5 at a faster speed; this time the needle of the voltmeter may cover the full scale
of the voltmeter. Describe any differences from your observations in step 5.
7. Now flip the poles of the magnet.
8. Repeat step 5. Describe any differences from your observations in step 5.
9. Are your observations in this part consistent with Faraday’s law?
Part 2: Dependence on the Number of Loops 1. Check the “Field lines” box to display the magnetic field lines.
2. Select the double coil option.
3. Drag the magnet so that its axis aligns with the axis of the upper coil, and it is far enough
from the coil that no more than four magnetic field lines go through the coil.
4. With a slow and steady motion, push the magnet into the coil, north-pole first, until it exits
through the other side completely clearing the coil so that no more than four magnetic field
lines are left inside the coil. Observe the brightness of the bulb and the motion of the needle
5. Repeat step 4 for the lower coil and with approximately the same speed as in step 4.
Observe the brightness of the bulb and the motion of the needle very carefully.
6. Describe the difference in brightness of the bulb and the motion of the needle between the
upper and lower coils.
7. Are your observations in this part consistent with Faraday’s law?
Lab #: Lab Title (from the lab handout)
Author: Your Full Name Date Performed: Month, Day, Year Class: PHYS ### Section: ##### Group Members: Full Name of Member 1 Full Name of Member 2 Full Name of Member 3 Full Name of Member 4
Abstract The abstract is one paragraph describing the ultimate purpose, methods used, and results of the lab work. From the abstract, the reader should be able to understand what the lab is intended to measure, what significant measurements were taken, and what summary results (including numbers) were obtained. It is not a detailed description, but a terse overview. Essentially you are to sum up the whole lab in one paragraph in this section. The abstract is not about anticipated activities, but an account of the experiments after they have been conducted.
Theory This section of the report provides the theoretical context of the lab. Include theory that is relevant to the understanding of the lab experiments and the interpretation of the data. This section should look like a short encyclopedia entry on the topic of the lab and should include all the relevant equations (properly formatted). Use the textbook and other references to learn about the theory needed for the interpretation of your experimental results. Do not copy from the references or the handout; write in your own words instead. Do not provide a list of procedures that you followed and do not mention the results of the lab work or show calculations in this section. This is also not the place to include your thoughts about the lab or the results you obtained.
Measurements and Observations This section includes a thorough description of the experimental setup(s), procedures followed, and the raw data (quantitative and qualitative) obtained from measurement and observation. Diagrams/snapshots of the experimental setup(s) should be included here. Do not include too many diagrams/snapshots; be judicious in your choices. Numerical data should be presented in tabular form when appropriate. Tables should not be broken over multiple pages.
Data Analysis and Discussion All calculations related to the data and conclusions drawn from it should be outlined here, including calculations of percentage errors. For similar calculations, only include sample calculations. When appropriate or requested in the lab handout, include graphs of the data in this section. For all graphs, make sure you include titles, labeled axes with units, and the equations of curve-fits if they are used.
In addition to the quantitative conclusions, also include a discussion regarding the nature and the significance of the results obtained. What were your fundamental conclusions from the lab experiment(s)? Were there any surprises or were the results as expected from theory? If the lab did not work out as it seems it should have, this is the place to discuss it. Why do you think it did not work out? What were the causes? How might you avoid the same problems in the future? When addressing these questions, do not simply provide one-sentence answers like “There were no surprises.” A thorough discussion is expected here.
The report must follow the above format and must be written in your own words, in complete sentences, and in paragraph form (not in list form). The report must be self-contained. This means that it should contain a thorough account of the experimental setup without need to refer to the lab handout. The lab report should also not read as if it is answering questions asked somewhere else. Do not copy from the lab handout and do not quote references. Write in your own words instead. Do not write the lab report as if you were asked (or forced) to carry out the lab activities. Use “we” instead of “I”. Do not use “student” or “students” to refer to yourself or your lab partners. Each section should contain multiple paragraphs of relevant content (except for the abstract which needs to be one paragraph). Avoid repetition and copying and pasting from one section into another. When including tables, graphs, and other figures, also include explanatory text to accompany these elements. Do not group tables, graphs, and other figures together; they should be integrated with the text and included where they need to be included. Also pay close attention to the formatting of the lab report, including typography, margins, spacing, and overall look. Finally, make sure the report is free of typos and grammatical errors. The lab report must be submitted on Canvas as one Word document (integrating all the tables, graphs, and other figures). As a SAC student, you have free access to Microsoft Office 365, which includes Word and Excel. The lab reports will be graded using a rubric. Make sure you read the rubric carefully for any additional requirements.
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