Vertical integration


Systems are essential for use in emergence and help integrate things towards a common goal. That is, they perform specific roles as directed by companies. Therefore, each companion has a way in which its systems are integrated. In some companies the designs are independent and the system can only be used for a specific purpose. For example, accounting systems will only deal with activities that echo sales and may not interface with other systems. Examples of forms of system integration include,

Vertical integration

The system is integrated on the principle of functional expertise. For example, in the case of two selected specialists, namely an accountant and a bookkeeper ( Andrew & Scott , 2012). Which accounting system is vertically superior to management accounting? This increases the impossibility of duplicate and paper operations.


Star integration

This is a subsystem where each company uses subsystems that refer to the functionality of other systems. This helps in improving the operations and the ability to coordinate the operations of the company. This corresponds to the fictional units of the organization.

Horizontal integration

The system makes use of the enterprise service bus. The integration is done to help store the functionality of the enterprise application that connects to it. These functionalities are also used by other applications that are related to the bus ( James , PB , Jason , & Maureen, 2019). It is essential because it provides a reasonable basis through which the operational activities of the entire organization can be effectively monitored. That said, it can help in publishing its functionality that helps to work with the client database.


System integration is necessary because it provides an easy way for an organization to manage its activities. Thus, it brings ease of working in the management unit of the organization. The system integrated into the whole operation can have disadvantages as well because when the system fails, it can lead to the failure of the whole process.

References Andrew , R. B., & Scott , B. (2012). Diagnosing the financial system: financial conditions and financial stress. International Journal of Central Banking, 8(2), 191-239. James , A. G., PB , D., Jason , N., & Maureen, T. R. (2019). Modelling the allocative efficiency of landowner taxation. Economic Modelling, 81, 111-123.

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