Bounding rule: The rule stating that all proportions range from 0.00 to 1.00.
Rule of the complement: Based on the bounding rule, the rule stating that the proportion of cases that are not in a certain category can be found by subtracting the proportion that are in that category from 1.00.
If p(A) is known, the formula can be reconfigured thusly in order to calculate p(Not A):
The variation ratio is a spinoff of the rule of the complement:
fmode = the number of cases in the modal category and
N = the sample size.
To compute the VR, first identify the mode and its associated frequency. Here, the mode is 99,999 or fewer, and its frequency is 1,389. Now, plug the numbers into Formula 5(2):
The variation ratio is .30, which means that .30 (30%) of the cases fall outside the modal category. This is a fairly limited amount of variation—70% of offices serve relatively small populations, and just 30% serve midsized or large jurisdictions.
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