Molecular Biologists

When natural scientists such as molecular biologists or particle physicists want to see how good their theories are, they conduct experiments. Economists and other social scientists have much less ability to carry out experiments—certainly at the level of the macroeconomy. The Kennedy tax cut, however, is like a “natural” experiment in that there was a major policy change that we can think of as a change in an exogenous variable. It is not, in truth, completely exogenous. We already explained that the tax cut was enacted in response to the poor performance of the economy. We are not badly misled by thinking of it as an exogenous event, however. We can therefore use it to see how well our theory performs. Specifically, we can look to see whether disposable income and consumption do behave as we have predicted. Empirical Evidence on Consumption Before we turn to those specific questions, let us examine some data on consumption.Figure 12.7 “Consumption and Income” shows the behavior of consumption and disposable income from 1962 to 2010. The measures of both income and consumption are in year 2005 dollars. This means that the nominal (money) levels of income and consumption for each of the years have been corrected for inflation, so that we can see how the real level of consumption relates to the real level of income.

The charts show consumption and personal disposable income (in billions of year 2005 dollars) from 1962 to 2010. Consumption and disposable income grew substantially over this time (a) and there is a close relationship between consumption and income (b). Source: Economic Report of the President (Washington, DC: GPO, 2011), table B-31, accessed September 20, 2011, Toolkit: Section 16.5 “Correcting for Inflation” You can review how to correct for inflation in the toolkit. The first thing we see in Figure 12.7 “Consumption and Income” is that both consumption and disposable income grew substantially over the 1962–2010 period. This should come as no surprise. We know that the US economy grew over this period, so we would expect that disposable income and consumption would also grow. Figure 12.7 “Consumption and Income” reveals that, as a consequence, there is a close relationship between consumption and income, and consumption expenditures are, on average, about 91 percent of disposable income. Although Figure 12.7 “Consumption and Income” looks something like a consumption function, we should not take this relationship as strong evidence for our theory because it is primarily caused by the fact that both variables grew over time. Consumption Response to the Kennedy Tax Cut Now we return to the Kennedy tax cut. How well does our model perform in predicting the effects of the tax changes on consumption? Superficially, this seems like an easy question.

Academic Heros
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Our writers are encouraged to read and research widely to have rich information before writing clients’ papers. Therefore, be it high school or PhD level paper, it will always be a well-researched work handled by experts.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

For one to become part of our team, thorough interview and vetting is undertaken to make sure their academic level and experience are beyond reproach, hence enabling us give our clients top quality work.

Free Unlimited Revisions

Once you have received your paper and feel that some issues have been missed, just request for revision and it will be done. In addition, you can present your work to the tutor and he/she asks for improvement/changes, we are always ready to assist.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All our papers are sent to the clients before the deadline to allow them time to review the work before presenting to the tutor. If for some reason we feel our writers cannot meet the deadline, we will contact you to ask for more time. If this is not possible, then the paid amount will be refunded.

Original & Confidential

Our writers have been trained to ensure work produced is free of plagiarism. Software to check originality are also applied. Our clients’ information is highly guarded from third parties to ensure confidentiality is maintained.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support team is available 24 hours, 7 days a week. You can reach the team via live chat, email or phone call. You can always get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

You have had a hectic day, and still need to complete your assignment, yet it is late at night. No need to panic. Place your order with us, retire to bed, and once you wake up, the paper will be ready.


Essay Writing Service

It does not matter the urgency of your paper, or the academic level, our team is ready to help you 24/7. Just contact us and all your academic needs will be sorted.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

A student is often required to write an admission letter requesting to be admitted in a certain institution. For you to be gain that admission in your dream institution, you must write a convincing letter. You can depend on our team for the best admission letters.


Editing Support

Academic writing is not just about getting information and throwing it all over. Our team will ensure you have a polished paper that is coherent and has a good flow of information. We also ensure the paper follows the correct formatting styles like APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago/Turabian.


Revision Support

If our writers write a paper but you are not satisfied in one way or another, you can always ask for revision. This is totally free. Our writers and editors will revise your paper untill you are be totally satisfied. We as well offer revision for papers not done by our writers at a small fee.