So far, among the senses given to intersubjectivity, the sharing senses do not seem to fit the experience we all have of synchronous discussions. Rather, the incorporation of compatible contributions/actions, compatibility being defined by the coordination of actions undertaken by the participants reflects more synchronous discussions. A different research direction done in linguistics may constitute a first step in studying how communication is maintained in synchronous discussion: Linguistics studies have recognized the role of grounding in attaining mutual understanding of utterances through coordination. The maintenance of common ground is done at different levels. It arises from contact (whether the interlocutor is willing and able to continue the interaction); perception (whether the interlocutor is willing and able to perceive the message); understanding (whether the interlocutor is willing and able to understand the message); attitudinal reaction (whether the interlocutor is willing and able to react and adequately respond to the message, specifically whether s/he accepts or rejects it). For Clark, grounding cannot be undertaken through isolated utterances but through patterns of interactions: for example, contact is maintained through a three-turn pattern between discussants: one posts a message, the other acknowledges his/her attendance, and the first continues. Baker and his colleagues have related this tradition with the socio-cultural historical tradition and identified in grounding a basic mechanism that enables collaborative learning and establishes intersubjectivity as a process of coordination of participants’ contribution in joint activity: Learning from grounding – collaborative learning – can be viewed as appropriation of semiotic tools, mediated by those very tools. Appropriation of cognitive tools can be viewed as a gradual transition from pragmatic level grounding – learning to understand each other, to collaborate – towards learning to understand the semiotic tools in a specific domain (that may also be languages themselves)
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