Public Policy

Public policy, then, like popular discourse, is filled with racial coding. Rural :: White and urban :: Black; so, without ever making race explicit, state lawmakers are able to carve out an exception for their White constituents. In a country as segregated as the United States, geography is a reliable proxy for race. If zip codes are a relatively low- tech device for instituting racism, how might we apply this insight to computer codes? How do they reinforce racist norms and structures without explicitly invoking race? And can we develop a race-conscious orientation to emerging technology, not only as a mode of critique but as a prerequisite for designing technology differently?

Race as Technology This field guide explores not only how emerging technologies hide, speed up, or reinforce racism, but also how race itself is a kind of technology70 – one designed to separate, stratify, and sanctify the many forms of injustice experienced by members of racialized groups, but one that people routinely reimagine and redeploy to their own ends.

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Human toolmaking is not limited to the stone instruments of our early ancestors or to the sleek gadgets produced by the modern tech industry. Human cultures also create symbolic devices that structure society. Race, to be sure, is one of our most powerful tools – developed over hundreds of years, varying across time and place, codified in law and refined through custom, and, tragically, still considered by many people to reflect immutable differences between groups. For that reason, throughout this book, we will consider not only how racial logics enter the design of technology but how race itself operates as a tool of vision and division with often deadly results.

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