Adequacy in funding means giving localities sufficient resources to educate all their students to high, rigorous
state standards. As a fiscal concept, adequacy is value driven; it is in the eye of the beholder. That is, people
define adequacy subjectively according to their own priorities and opinions. Attempts have been made to
quantify how much a state or school district needs to spend for its students, but the actual figure remains
Allan Odden and Larry Picus, educational leadership professors, give us the best operational definition
of fiscal adequacy:
to teach the average student to state standards, and then to identify how much each district/school requires to
teach students with special needs—the learning disabled, those from poverty and thus educationally deficient
backgrounds, and those without English proficiency—to the same high and rigorous achievement standards.
Nonetheless, the answer to “What is adequate?” remains unclear.
As a result, this crucial yet vaguely defined concept has become the grist for court challenges since the
1990s. Over the last 30 years, legal disputes have shifted from equity—school funding disparities—to
adequacy issues, and fiscal adequacy may continue as the active focus of adjudication in coming years.
Between 1971 and 2010, 42 states faced legal challenges to their school funding systems; and in 28 states,
the courts overturned the existing system.
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