State effort can be calculated in the same basic way we calculated the hypothetical levels for Elm and Oak
School Districts in the previous section. The formula for determining effort by dividing the revenue or
expenditures by the tax base to obtain a ratio that equalizes for capacity is still valid at the state level. All that remains is to determine the tax base structure to use.
Fiscal effort can be computed at the state level in different ways. Because dollar amounts have more
meaning when put into context. In this example, fiscal effort is defined as the ratio of the states’ per pupil
expenditures divided by the state’s per capita gross domestic product.
A word of caution: comparing states on fiscal effort is inherently misleading because states vary broadly
in their ability to raise revenues. In Table 6.13, we used the measure of wealth as gross state product. As
discussed earlier, some states gain significant revenues from severance taxes on raw materials whereas other
states’ large capacity comes from business revenues from corporations headquartered in their states. Other
states, such as Nevada and New Jersey, obtain large revenues from casino gambling. Consequently, the state rankings may change each year as education spending and the wealth measures change.
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