Engine-Generated Tractive Effort The amount of tractive effort generated by the vehicle’s engine is a function of a variety of engine and drivetrain design factors. For engine design, critical factors in determining output include the shape of the combustion chamber, the quantity of air drawn into the combustion chamber during the induction phase, the type of fuel used, fuel intake design, and so on. Although a complete description of engine design is beyond the scope of this book, an understanding of how engine output is measured and used is important in the study of vehicle performance. The two most commonly used measures of engine output are torque and power. Torque is the work generated by the engine (the twisting moment) and is expressed in foot-pounds (ft-lb). Power is the rate of engine work, expressed in horsepower (hp), and is related to the engine’s torque by the following equation:
e e e
M n = (2.16)
hpe = engine-generated horsepower (1 horsepower equals 550 ft-lb/s), Me = engine torque in ft-lb, and ne = engine speed in crankshaft revolutions per second.
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