Flexible-Pavement Design

1. Truck A has two single axles. One axle weighs 12,000 lb and the other weighs 23,000 lb. Truck B has an 8000-lb single axle and a 43,000-lb tandem axle. On a flexible pavement with a 3-inch HMA wearing surface, a 6-inch soil-cement base, and an 8- inch crushed stone subbase, which truck will cause more pavement damage? (Assume that drainage coefficients are 1.0.)

2. A flexible pavement has a 4-inch HMA wearing surface, a 7-inch dense-graded crushed stone base, and a 10-inch crushed stone subbase. The pavement is on a soil with a resilient modulus of 5000 lb/in2. The pavement was designed with 90% reliability, an overall standard deviation of 0.4, and a ΔPSI of 2.0 (a TSI of 2.5). The drainage coefficients are 0.9 and 0.8 for the base and subbase, respectively. How many 25-kip single-axle loads can be carried before the pavement reaches its TSI (with given reliability)?

3. A highway has the following pavement design daily traffic: 300 single axles at 10,000 lb each, 120 single axles at 18,000 lb each, 100 single axles at 23,000 lb each, 100 tandem axles at 32,000 lb each, 30 single axles at 32,000 lb each, and 100 triple axles at 40,000 lb each. A flexible pavement is designed to have 4 inches of sand-mix asphalt wearing surface, 6 inches of soil-cement base, and 7 inches of crushed stone subbase. The pavement has a 10-year design life, a reliability of 85%, an overall standard deviation of 0.30, drainage coefficients of 1.0, an initial PSI of 4.7, and a TSI of 2.5. What is the minimum acceptable soil resilient modulus?

4. Consider the conditions in Problem 4.3. Suppose the state has relaxed its truck weight limits and the impact has been to reduce the number of 18,000-lb single-axle loads from 120 to 20 and increase the number of 32,000-lb single-axle loads from 30 to 90 (all other traffic is unaffected). Under these revised daily counts, what is the minimum acceptable soil resilient modulus?

5. A flexible pavement was designed for the following daily traffic with a 12-year design life: 1300 single axles at 8000 lb each, 900 tandem axles at 15,000 lb each, 20 single axles at 40,000 lb each, and 200 tandem axles at 40,000 lb each. The highway was designed with 4 inches of HMA wearing surface,

4 inches of hot-mix asphaltic base, and 8 inches of crushed stone subbase. The reliability was 70%, overall standard deviation was 0.5, ΔPSI was 2.0 (with a TSI of 2.5), and all drainage coefficients were 1.0. What was the soil resilient modulus of the subgrade used in design?

6. A flexible pavement has a SN of 3.8 (all drainage coefficients are equal to 1.0). The initial PSI is 4.7 and the terminal serviceability is 2.5. The soil has a CBR of 9. The overall standard deviation is 0.40 and the reliability is 95%. The pavement is currently designed for 1800 equivalent 18-kip single-axle loads per day. If the number of 18-kip single-axle loads were to increase by 30%, by how many years would the pavement’s design life be reduced?

7. An engineer plans to replace the rigid pavement in Example 4.3 with a flexible pavement. The chosen design has 6 inches of sand-mix asphalt wearing surface, 9 inches of soil-cement base, and 10 inches of crushed stone subbase. All drainage coefficients are 1.0 and the soil resilient modulus is 5000 lb/in2. If the highway’s traffic is the same (same axle loadings per vehicle as in Example 4.3), for how many years could you be 95% sure that this pavement will last?

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