Pavement structures can be broadly categorized into two types: flexible pavements and rigid pavements. There are, however, many variations of these pavement types
including composite pavements (which are made of both rigid and flexible pavement layers), continuously reinforced pavements, and post-tensioned pavements (these variations require specialized design procedures that not covered in this chapter).
As with most conventional civil-engineering structures, the underlying soil must ultimately carry the design-load forces. The intent of a pavement structure is to distribute traffic loads to the soil (subgrade) at a magnitude that will not shear or distort the soil. Typical soil-bearing capacities can be less than 50 lb/in2, and in some cases can be as low as 2 to 3 lb/in2. When soil is saturated with water, the load-bearing capacity can be very low, and in these cases it is very important for pavement to distribute tire loads to the supporting soil in such a way as to prevent permanent deformation of the underlying soil, which would classify as a failure of the pavement structure.
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