Liveness Monitoring and Failure Notification

Once setup is complete, our FUSE implementation monitors the liveness of the group members using a span- ning tree whose individual branches follow the overlay routes between the group creator and the group members. Each link in the tree is monitored from both sides; if either side decides a link has failed, it ceases to acknowledge pings for the given FUSE group along all its links. When this occurs, one could immediately signal group failure, but our implementation instead attempts repair.

This mechanism allows FUSE to guarantee that any member of the group can cause a failure notification to be received by every other live group member. FUSE in- vokes the failure notification handler exactly once on a node before tearing down the state for that FUSE group. A node hearing the notification does not know whether it was due to crash, network disconnect or partition, or if the notification was explicitly triggered by some group mem- ber. Explicit triggering is a necessary component of FUSE because FUSE does not guarantee that it will notice all persistent communication problems between group mem- bers automatically; it only guarantees that a communica- tion failure noticed by any group member will soon be detected by all group members.

FUSE only guarantees delivery of failure notifications, and only to nodes that have already been contacted during group creation. Note that FUSE clients cannot use this mechanism to implement general-purpose reliable com- munication. Therefore, well-known impossibility results for consensus do not apply to FUSE. A concrete example illustrating this limitation is a network partition. FUSE members on both sides of the partition will receive failure notifications, but it is not possible to communicate additional information, such as the cause of the failure, across the partition.

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