Principle of Falsifiability. According to Popper, the demarcation criterion that distinguishes a sci- entific theory from a nonscientific theory is the principle of falsifiability. A scientific theory must be refutable. Contrary to what many believe, if any conceivable observation can be made to agree with a theory, the theory is weak, not strong. Popper spent a great deal of time criticizing the theories of Freud and Adler for exactly this reason. This is because those theories are vague, so no matter what happens verification can likely be claimed. Popper contrasted such theories with that of Einstein, which predicts precisely what should or should not happen if the theory is correct. Thus, Einstein’s theory, unlike the theories of Freud and Adler, was refutable and, therefore, scientific.
For Popper, for a theory to be scientific, it must make risky predictions—predictions that run a real risk of being incorrect. Theories that do not make risky predictions or that explain phenomena after they have already occurred are, according to Popper, not scientific. In addition to vagueness, another major problem with many psychological theories (such as Freud’s and Adler’s) is that they engage more in postdiction (explaining phenomena after they have already occurred) than in prediction.
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