The other component of shareholders’ equity is called earned capital or retained earnings. Earned capital represents the accumulated earnings of that company since its inception, less any dividends paid to the company’s shareholders. Many newly established companies pay limited divi- dends and instead concentrate on growth. Rather than acquire capital externally at an additional cost, they can use these internally generated funds in a more efficient way. Established companies, on the other hand, attract a different type of investor who looks to dividends as a source of periodic revenue.
When a company first begins operations, accumulated or retained earn- ings are zero. With the passage of time however, earnings are reported and dividends are distributed. As a result, retained earnings may be positive or negative. A positive measure indicates that the company has attained some level of profitability (net income) and has distributed less than those earn- ings to shareholders. Negative retained earnings suggest that the company has sustained net losses over time or paid out dividends in excess of profits achieved. There is no relationship between retained earnings and a com- pany’s cash position. Remember that retained earnings are a subset of equity, and equity supports all assets.
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