Many discussions about HRD evaluation are organized around Kirkpatrick’s four levels of criteria. However, Kirkpatrick’s approach has also been the target of considerable criticism and modification. Some authors point out that the framework evaluates only what happens after training, as opposed to the entire training process.25 A second criticism is that Kirkpatrick’s framework would be better described as a taxonomy of outcomes, rather than a true model of training outcomes. Kraiger, Ford, and Salas argue that Kirkpatrick’s approach fails to specify what sorts of changes can be expected as a result of learning and what assessment techniques should be used to measure learning at each level. Alliger and Janak question the validity of the assumptions implied by the frame- work (e.g., achieving the outcomes stated in higher levels of the model assumes achievement of outcomes at the lower levels). They suggest that it “may never have been meant to be more than a first, global heuristic for train- ing evaluation”. Kirkpatrick responded to this criticism by stating: “I personally have never called my framework ‘a model’” , and “I don’t care whether my work is called a model or a taxonomy as long as it helps to clarify the meaning of evaluation in simple terms and offers guidelines and sug- gestions on how to accomplish an evaluation”. Giangreco and colleagues argue that the Kirkpatrick model is not well suited to the fast pace of modern economy.

Training researchers have expanded Kirkpatrick’s ideas to encourage practi- tioners to do a more thorough job of evaluation. Several authors suggest modi- fications to Kirkpatrick’s four-level approach that keep the framework essentially intact. These include:

• Expanding the reaction level to include assessing the participants’ reaction to the training methods and efficiency31

• Distinguishing more clearly between cognitive and affective reactions to training

• Splitting the reaction level to include assessing participants’ perceptions of enjoyment, usefulness (utility), and the difficulty of the program

• Adding a fifth level (beyond results) to specifically address the organization’s return on investment (ROI)

• Adding a fifth level (beyond results) to address the societal contributions and outcomes created by an HRD program

• Adding a focus on “return on expectations” (ROE), i.e., focusing more on what managers and executives want and expect from the HRD intervention, rather than on ROI.

Galvin, building on studies in the education field, suggests the CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model. In this model, evaluation focuses on measuring the context for training (needs analysis); inputs to training (examining the resources available for training, such as budgets and schedules); the process of conducting the training program (for feedback to the implementers); and the product or outcome of training (success in meeting program objectives). Galvin reports survey results indicating that ASTD members prefer the CIPP model of evaluation to Kirkpatrick’s framework. Warr et al. proposed a similar model.

Academic Heros
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Our writers are encouraged to read and research widely to have rich information before writing clients’ papers. Therefore, be it high school or PhD level paper, it will always be a well-researched work handled by experts.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

For one to become part of our team, thorough interview and vetting is undertaken to make sure their academic level and experience are beyond reproach, hence enabling us give our clients top quality work.

Free Unlimited Revisions

Once you have received your paper and feel that some issues have been missed, just request for revision and it will be done. In addition, you can present your work to the tutor and he/she asks for improvement/changes, we are always ready to assist.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All our papers are sent to the clients before the deadline to allow them time to review the work before presenting to the tutor. If for some reason we feel our writers cannot meet the deadline, we will contact you to ask for more time. If this is not possible, then the paid amount will be refunded.

Original & Confidential

Our writers have been trained to ensure work produced is free of plagiarism. Software to check originality are also applied. Our clients’ information is highly guarded from third parties to ensure confidentiality is maintained.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support team is available 24 hours, 7 days a week. You can reach the team via live chat, email or phone call. You can always get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

You have had a hectic day, and still need to complete your assignment, yet it is late at night. No need to panic. Place your order with us, retire to bed, and once you wake up, the paper will be ready.


Essay Writing Service

It does not matter the urgency of your paper, or the academic level, our team is ready to help you 24/7. Just contact us and all your academic needs will be sorted.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

A student is often required to write an admission letter requesting to be admitted in a certain institution. For you to be gain that admission in your dream institution, you must write a convincing letter. You can depend on our team for the best admission letters.


Editing Support

Academic writing is not just about getting information and throwing it all over. Our team will ensure you have a polished paper that is coherent and has a good flow of information. We also ensure the paper follows the correct formatting styles like APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago/Turabian.


Revision Support

If our writers write a paper but you are not satisfied in one way or another, you can always ask for revision. This is totally free. Our writers and editors will revise your paper untill you are be totally satisfied. We as well offer revision for papers not done by our writers at a small fee.